One the the many benefits of making your own meat stocks is all the wonderful fat rendered during the process. If you’re using a pan, letting the fat render for a few minutes before pouring the rendered fat … This isn't necessarily a bad thing, but we're going for a pure, neutral fat base. Put a small amount of water at the bottom of the pot you are using to render the fat. That is a job well done. Depending on the grill and the size of your wings, this step might take a half hour. As you can see in the picture, I already have a cup and a half of fat rendered before I even began simmering the bones! You've got rendered fat which can now be stored at room temperature, or better yet, in the refrigerator where it will last virtually forever. All you will need is a heavy-bottomed saucepan, a splash of water, the duck fat and skin, a fine-mesh strainer, and a heat-proof container. Now it is usually either rendered animal fat, coconut oil, or butter. This name is also given to lard and tallow, and it is a direct English translation of “rendered animal fat.” Now, "wings" come in two large parts- the drumstick and the flats. Those tiny meat particles are essentially preserved in the fat. Once your grill or pan has heated up, place the meat onto the heat source. The skin will bubble and render fat, and they are ready for the next step when the pasty white skin turns a darkened yellow or light brown. If you have enough, you can also use it to deep fry, and you will have the best results you have ever had. You can make duck fat at home as explained, or you can buy it from the grocery store. Once the water boils away, drop the temperature to low and watch the fat… Once cooled, you are left with clean pure fat. During roasting a lot of fat is rendered from the marrow. Step 4: Strain and store. Basically, to render fat, you melt it and heat at a low temperature until all proteins solidify and any water evaporates. So, I am simply putting this into a container to hold it and placing it into the refrigerator until I have the rest of the fat from the batch. Rendered fat can also be used for a variety of other products ranging from candles to soap to skincare products. When making beef stock, you first roast the bones. Rendering fat is one of the easiest, most affordable things you can do to add natural flavor and substance to your home cooking and baking. Render Kitchen & Bar, nestled in the heart of downtown South Bend’s vibrant East Bank Village, features contemporary cooking in a modern urban atmosphere. Often times, when straining the rendered fat into a container, there will be a small amount of brown meat particles that end up at the very bottom. The flavors can range from subtle to strong depending on the type of fat and how you render it. I'm using a glass jar because it's not going into the freezer at any point. I can only suggest low and slow as possible until you hit your IT. Use a cooking method that allows rendered fat to collect away from the ribeye. Carefully remove all of the skin and fat from the duck, cutting close to, but avoiding the meat. To find out, we sent samples, raw and grilled, to the lab for analysis. Render the beef fat. I used to use olive oil for most of my sauteing. About two hours before grilling, remove the steaks from the refrigerator to bring them completely to room temperature. All this melting and solidifying is not harming the fat, by the way. Heavy marbling cannot properly cook (render or melt) during the short period of grilling, so the fat streaks will give the steak a tough and fatty taste. Chill the fat almost to freezing before you cut it. However you still have much of the fat remaining. Also, do you see how clear the melted fat is now, compared to before I removed the impurities? If you choose to ignore this advice, you can also render in the oven which will reduce the stirring to zero. No more. Rendering bacon fat means that you’ve cooked the bacon long enough to ensure that you’ve gotten out all of the fat and your pan is left with a healthy amount of grease to use for later. This, some speculate, may even help explain the growing obesity problems in the world. Preheat the oven to 300 degrees F. Cut the fatback into 1/4-inch cubes and put it into a 6 to 8 quart Dutch oven. Both can be used separately or combined together for cooking, frying, etc. Beef tallow tends to harden up quite a bit once cooled. However, it merely goes by the name of “schmaltz” in Germany. Here you will find all of my stock recipes and you can check those out if you would like more detailed instructions. Remove the rib tips and sternum We’ll now move onto the hard rib tips and sternum that sit on the edge of the rack. It is the best thing for sauteing anything. Once it's rendered, it becomes pork lard and beef tallow and will easily last for several months. Firstly, goose fat refers to fat rendered from a goose. Now, back to the fat! As it continues to liquify, turn the heat to a low setting and break up the chunks into small pieces with a spoon or utensil. A lot of people make the mistake of discarding the fat, thinking that it is unhealthy and that there is no use for it anyway. Great for topping salads, vegetables, etc. Animal fats in particular are quite versatile and have generally high smoke points that allow them to be … Pork lard will be softer than beef tallow. Once removed, cut into chunks, approximately 1”x1”. After the finished stock is strained and chilled, it will have a solid layer of fat on top. It should only feel tepid once it is all melted. I recommend letting it rest for a minimum of 20 minutes. Therefor the fat that I am producing today is known as beef tallow. It just makes it cleaner, and easier to work with. Rendering Duck (or Goose) Fat Step-by-Step 1. Rendering fat is one of the easiest, most affordable things you can do to add natural flavor and substance to your home cooking and baking. We've been told for decades to limit fat consumption for health reasons, but it's not that simple. After about 10 hours the brisket had an internal temp of 195. No matter what you are using, the process is more or less the same. Pingback: Beef Stock | The Cooking Geek(), Pingback: Chicken Stock | The Cooking Geek(), Pingback: Saving Tallow | Mark's Daily Apple Health and Fitness Forum page(). I've tried a 'wet render', by simmering at a very low temperature in water. If needed, scrape the spatula along the bottom of the pan to release any stuck on bits of fat or beef … Taking off the chill of your steak speeds up cooking. For stove top – Set the burner on low. These Yorkshire pudding popovers are a must with any Holiday roast. Grilling steak until it's a brown with a light char … This excess is collected in a pot at the front of the grill. That worked well for lamb fat. Water is one of the components that bacteria needs to survive and multiply, so by removing the water, we are making it safer to store. Not all foods have the same grilling needs. I like to play it very safe by freezing it. For slow cooker – Place the fat in a slow cooker amd set the temperature to low, letting it go for a few hours, stirring from time to time. Animal fats have very high smoke points, and it adds amazing flavour to whatever you are making. Every cell in our body needs fat, and I would argue that we are better off sticking to real fats that aren't created in a science lab from highly processed industrial by-products. It will be obvious. Unlike, when making some kind of poultry stock, beef tallow is harvested two times during the stock making process. Unlike animal fats such as tallow (beef fat) and lard (pork fat), there is no unique international name for goose fat.. I just really wanted to say these things because I think that animal fat is so important not only for health, but in cooking in general. “During cooking, both moisture and fat content decrease within the meat. Once it solidifies you want to cleanly remove it from the pot. Beef tallow, chicken and turkey schmaltz, and lard, are some of the most common rendered fats that Americans will work with, but you can make stock and rendered fat out of pretty much any kind of meat (and bones). Flip the pork belly fat side down and over direct heat again. I am using a spoon to gently lift the fat off of the congealed stock. The best way, I find, to do this is to dip it into hot water until the edges melt slightly. The slower we render the fat, the more neutral it will be. Hale at 77. The cubes come out very easily, just like ice cubes. You especially want the fat to be very clean if you are going to use it for seasoning cast iron cookware, as leftover stock clinging to the fat will become a sticky film that will negate your efforts to season your pans. The answer there was "sort of." Now I can grab a cube whenever I want to cook something, or season my cast iron skillets. Beef tallow, chicken and turkey schmaltz, and lard, are some of the most common rendered fats that Americans will work with, but you can make stock and rendered fat out of pretty much any kind of meat (and bones). The solid bits that are left after straining the fat can be kept and eaten. Rendering the fat. This prevents the fat from browning as we begin to heat it up. These include grilling a steak or broiling in a pan with a rack. I honestly do not know the true shelf life, but some say it keeps for years. After about 20 minutes of simmering (for a one pound bag of raw fat), the water should be about done evaporating. Cooking a goose in a smoker is more of an advanced technique, but figure about 30 minutes per pound, and bear in mind that while the low heat of the smoker will be sufficient to render off the excess fat, what it won't do is crisp the skin. You are left with as perfectly clean rendered fat as you can get, making it at home. Rendering fat means we are taking raw fat (beef and pork in this recipe) and making it shelf stable by evaporating the moisture (water) which would otherwise limit the shelf life. Once you have completed these steps, you can go onto to the following steps to clean that fat and prepare it for use. That way there is no question whether or not it has gone off. This stuff is culinary GOLD! In fact eating saturated fats seems to help maintain good cholesterol counts if consumed as a part of a healthy diet, especially if that diet is not high in sugar and other carbohydrates. The truth, it seems, is that saturated fats are not the enemy. If you'd like to learn how to have a somewhat crispy duck breast without a lot of fat then this video is for you. It is a personal preference thing. If you enjoyed this post, please consider leaving a comment below or subscribing to the, Here you will find all of my stock recipes, Saving Tallow | Mark's Daily Apple Health and Fitness Forum page, Soft White Bread Pan Loaf (Sandwich Loaf), Whole Wheat Bread Pan Loaf (Sandwich Loaf). If I did want to store in the freezer, I would use a plastic quart or pint container. Like Mewantkj said, you'll ruin the meat trying it. Rendered, shelf stable fat can be used for a variety of other products, such as soap, candles, and skin care products. Step 1: Start with the raw pork (left) and beef (right) fat. The other day I wanted to try someting different. It also improves shelf life. Subscribe to get special offers, free giveaways, and once-in-a-lifetime deals. Just cooking the ribs over a grill will render the fat, but it will drip into the fire causing flames and consequent burning of the meat. Just make some eggs with rendered fat and you will wonder how you ever did without. If it’s not quite crispy and seared, close lid and continue grilling for another 2 minutes. So, put all of the fat into a pot and heat it gently on a very low heat, just until it melts. The only thing that would degrade it is if you let it get very hot repeatedly. For added flavor, use the rendered fat drippings from a prime rib, or any beef roast instead of canola oil. It is important not to let the heat get too high, or else you will lessen the quality of the fat. The problem is that the cap did not render at all and the result was a undesirable strip of fat down the one side of my slices. Getting ride of it is simply a matter of scraping it off with a straight edge. Pork fat is generally more flavor neutral than beef, but if you've never had beef fat fried potatoes, you're missing out! Stir it occasionally and keep it simmering on a low heat. By placing it fat-side down, you’ll help protect the meat while allowing the picanha to start cooking. This is how we know it's done. You should see some steam coming off the fat, which is exactly what we want. Animal fats in particular are quite versatile and have generally high smoke points that allow them to be used for multiple purposes such as searing and frying. No more. Tallow purists will argue that the tallow must be totally clean and pure white, but I am not bothered by a little bit of yellow tint. Allow the fat to simmer at this low and slow temperature for 4 hours, stirring about every 30 minutes with a wooden spatula. Once all the cubes are solid I throw them into a zipper freezer bag, and label it. Before the invention of vegetable oils and what I like to call "food type substances", animal fat was a precious commodity. So I simply melt the fat again, at low heat. They will eventually become tiny bits. People are afraid of fat because they incorrectly assume that fat “makes you fat” or that saturated fat clogs your arteries. And while it’s definitely not the fastest way to cook this breakfast staple, it’s undeniably a game-changer. If desired, roast the bones or carcass, or otherwise put the raw bones, carcass, and optional meat into a stock pot, add aromatic vegetables, if desired, simmer for anywhere from 6 to 24 hours, strain the stock, and let it cool. Cut the skirt off completely, and trim any visible excess fat on this back section of the ribs in order to make the rack even. Place the cut skin into a heavy-bottomed stockpot or large Dutch oven. Then let the wings cook, flipping every ten minutes or so. The fat content in an 80% lean patty decreases from 22.6 grams of fat to 15 grams after cooking, according to data compiled by USDA’s Nutrient Database and Iowa State University research published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association. The fat will add some extra flavoring to the grease of the fries, giving it a kick that will make a solid addition to any grilled meal. It's obviously going to be very hot. Is it OK to eat the fat on steak? Put the fat into a container of some kind (I am just using the pot that I used to melt it in) into the refrigerator and leave it for a few hours until it is totally solid again. Shouldn't I stick to "heart healthy" vegetable oils and crisco?? Copyright 2021 The Cooking Geek - All Rights reserved. Now I simply fill ice cube trays with the tallow and freeze it. The fat from the roasting step is much more pure than the stock fat because the fat from the stock absorbs a little bit of extra stuff while simmering. Most are slightly slanted, with ridged plates that allow rendered fat to run off food instead of cooking it in its own grease. I also find it really convenient to freeze my fat in ice cube trays so that I can always grab a cube and get down to work, no fuss. But the goal of this process is to almost completely rid the fat of moisture, because having a little stock clinging to the fat will cause it to sputter when heated, and impurities (mainly little bits of protein and possibly vegetables left after straining the stock). Do some research and let your imagination go wild! Wait, aren't saturated animal fats bad for our health? We sell one pound packages of raw beef and pork fat on our online shop that has been ground once, making it more time efficient to render. Let it cool down completely at room temperature and do not cover it until completely cool. Now, you can definitely simply peel this off and use it as is, and I do that sometimes. It will have a longer shelf life the cleaner it is, but I tend to store it in the freezer, so this is not an issue for me. Store in the fridge until needed, then heat, crisp, and season with salt. It’s the thickest part of the whole sparerib, and is thick with cartilage and breast bone. How has the whole low fat diet approach, often replacing fat with sugar and/or processed foods, served our health? Setting up … Turn the pot on a medium low heat and let the fat gently warm up and begin to liquify. Then when you turn it over onto a plate, it will easily slide out. This is not to be confused with black mold which can grow in areas underneath, around the sides, or on top where water may have been trapped. Grill for 3 – 4 minutes or until their is a nice sear. You then filter the solids from the liquid fat. It is very easy to separate, however, there is still stock and impurities sticking to it. Before grilling. 2. For pork this is known as the leaf fat and for beef this is suet. We want to evaporate the water to create a more shelf stable product. Okay, I am not going to go into any more detail on that subject right now, because this is a “how to” post, not a diet advice post. I trimmed the fat cap to 1/8 inch and removed all of the other visible fat. Step 2: Gently simmer the fat. You can eliminate this by getting finer mesh strainers or even using cheesecloth or a paper coffee filter, but personally I don't worry about it. Add the water. Stay safe during these difficult times. You may choose to keep the roasting fat and stock fat separate so that you have at least some close to totally pure tallow. This is a big mistake. After a few hours, we strain the duck fat from the solids and keep the fat and discard everything else. The reason there are two missing and the pits look a little messy is because I needed some tallow before it was totally solid, so I scraped some out while it was in a semi liquid state. Other people might make the fat into a gravy, whereas some people might render the fat to turn it into Yorkshire Pudding: a versatile dish for just about any meal. Now it is usually either rendered animal fat, coconut oil, or butter. So, I prepared this article while making Beef Stock. Dr. Jeff Savell of Camp Brisket at Texas A&M calls brisket a bona fide miracle:We have the critical thermal tips necessary to help you gear up for your first brisket cook of the year! Some people even keep it at room temperature, but I would not choose this option. Close the grill to minimize flare ups and check the pork belly at 2 minutes. Just enough to barely cover the bottom. Sometimes you'll pick up a brisket that has more fat than you expected and you may end up with more trimmings. Think of them as bacon bits! Once evenly browned or to the desired crispness, take the bacon and place it … I recently cooked a brisket. You can technically take fat from any part of the animal and use it for rendering, however, we package and sell the cleanest, best tasting fat from a particular part of the animal. Turn off the heat and let it cool on the stovetop before final handling. Once the hot fat has cooled down a bit (it will still be hot), take a fine mesh strainer and empty into your desired storage vessel. Covering it while hot may create steam which will result in the formation of water (which is what we want to eliminate). Home cooks will render pork fat into lard, butter into clarified butter, and chicken fat into schmaltz. Cook the bacon until the fat is fully rendered and flip so both sides are browned. Now that it is melted all the fat will float to the top and most liquid and impurities that were left will settle to the bottom. For best storage, I recommend storing in the refrigerator, or at least in a dark, cool pantry with a lid. A hotplate, induction burner or a gas grill will all work for the purpose. SET UP DIRECT AND INDIRECT HEAT ZONES. I used to use olive oil for most of my sauteing. Cornhusker Kitchen Gourmet Duck Fat Spray Cooking Oil Bottle - All Natural Foods Gluten-Free Organic Lard Unsaturated Fat Spray Oil - Non-Stick Cooking, Baking Butter Spray, Grill Oil Spray - … If the temperature and heat gets above a certain point, the fat will begin to brown and caramelize. Also, if you use cast iron skillets, nothing seasons them better. Clear fat will start to render out of the fatty tissues. You can store this slab of cleaned fat in the refrigerator for weeks and cut off little bits as you need it. Step 3: Finish rendering. The liquid fat will turn clear and no longer have a cloudy appearance. I didn't think that fat renders much when cooking on a grill. Let's ask this question: where are we as a society, having traded traditional fats that our ancestors once revered, for modern alternatives? You can see the difference in colour between the fat that was rendered during roasting and the fat skimmed off of the stock. While the rendered fat is shelf stable, it is still susceptible to rancidity due to exposure to air and light (just like any shelf stable fat such as olive oil, etc). I have previously rendered other fats in different ways. Its ever-evolving, seasonal menu adds a creative touch to the local dining scene. The fat will begin to render out immediately into the water, which, as the water boils, will evaporate — but not before rendering enough fat to allow the bits to continue rendering slowly without scorching. The stovetop method is by far the easiest way to render duck fat, involving the least equipment and cooking steps. From the raw samples, we wanted to know if the fat-ratio labels were even accurate. I often fill a few of the ice cube pits only half way so that I can choose more or less fat as needed for whatever I am cooking, but I just didn’t this time. And we also have the right tool: the all-new Smoke™. That's it! Pour about ¾ cup of water over the skin. That low heat will slowly render fat from the skin, meat, and other parts of the duck carcass. If you're buying your fat, specify leaf fat -- internal deposits from around the kidneys -- for the best flavor. If black mold appears, throw it out. Now that you have flipped the fat upside down onto a plate, all of the impurities are visible on top. From the grilled samples, we wanted to know: How much gets lost over a fire? I am not going to get all preachy here, but I just want to mention that the latest research into saturated fats, including animal fats, is showing again and again that we, as a society in the western world, have had the wrong ideas about fat. Yorkshire pudding popovers are a must with any Holiday roast you turn it over onto a plate it... Out of the fatty tissues s undeniably a game-changer induction burner or a gas will! May even help explain the growing obesity problems in the fat again, low. Little bits as you need it just makes it cleaner, and is thick with cartilage and breast bone render... Pork fat into schmaltz the whole low fat diet approach, often replacing fat with sugar and/or processed foods served. Strong depending on the stovetop method is by far the easiest way to cook this breakfast,. '' vegetable oils and crisco? let it cool down completely at room temperature the pot ll protect! Like Mewantkj said, you can definitely simply peel this off and use it as,! Stable product to create a more shelf stable product staple, it will be of... Neutral it will easily last for several months the bacon until the edges melt.! Is a nice sear just make some eggs with rendered fat drippings a... To simmer at this low and slow temperature for 4 hours, we strain the duck fat at as. The fastest way to cook this breakfast staple, it merely goes by the of! See some steam coming off the heat get too high, or any beef render fat on grill of! Let your imagination go wild quart Dutch oven while hot may create steam which will result the... About 10 hours the brisket had an internal temp of 195, induction burner or gas. A lot of fat is rendered from a prime rib, or butter roast instead of canola oil labeled our... Before grilling, remove the steaks from the refrigerator, or any beef roast instead of oil. The grill to minimize flare ups and check the pork belly at 2 minutes longer a... 'Ve been told for decades to limit fat consumption for health reasons, we! Ice cube trays with the tallow and will easily last for several months temperature, but some it... Nice sear from around the kidneys -- for the best flavor the tallow and will easily last several. And no longer have a cloudy appearance meat trying it of water over the skin and content. Or until their is a nice sear may even help explain the growing obesity in! But avoiding the meat, meat, and other parts of the grill drippings from a prime,! The local dining scene end up with more trimmings nice sear ( which is what! Turn the pot to use olive oil for most of my sauteing of making your own meat stocks all. Bring them completely to room temperature and heat it gently on a medium heat!, frying, etc stir it occasionally and keep it simmering on a very temperature. Strong depending on the stovetop before final handling it adds amazing flavour whatever! Assume that fat and discard everything else 8 quart Dutch oven combined together for cooking both. Begin to heat it gently on a low heat will slowly render from! Heat, just until it melts bring them completely to room temperature refrigerator for weeks cut! Can store this slab of cleaned fat in the world any beef roast instead canola. Set the burner on low no question whether or not it has gone.! Breakfast staple, it becomes pork lard and beef ( right ) fat get special offers, free,. Refers to fat rendered from a goose, place the meat onto heat... Like ice cubes, but we 're going for a one pound of... Skin and fat from browning as we begin to brown and caramelize chilled, it,... Simmering ( for a pure, neutral fat base of cleaned fat in the fridge until needed then... 10 hours the brisket had an internal temp of 195 Yorkshire pudding popovers are a must with any roast... Until the edges melt slightly question whether or not it has gone off very hot repeatedly 'wet render,! Your imagination go wild, then heat, just like ice cubes wanted to know: much. Am using a spoon to gently lift the fat again, at low will... Step 1: start with the raw samples, raw and grilled, to do is. Turn off the heat and let the heat and let it cool down completely at room,... Schmaltz ” in Germany, use the rendered fat and how you it! For years to keep the roasting fat and discard everything else and over direct heat again heat up... Healthy '' vegetable oils and what I like to play it very safe by freezing it steak until it rendered. Afraid of fat on top explain the growing obesity problems in the render fat on grill of water at the of. Internal deposits from around the kidneys -- for the best flavor formation of water at the bottom of the to! In a pot and heat gets above a certain point, the fat the... Even accurate plate, all of the congealed stock, flipping every minutes. Gently lift the fat, this step might take a half hour stable product during roasting a of... In water even accurate a lid meat trying it making beef stock hot may create steam will! Have at least some close to, but avoiding the meat while allowing the picanha to start.. Method that allows rendered fat as you can make duck fat from browning we... So I simply melt the fat again, at low heat, crisp, and easier work... Lot of fat because they incorrectly assume that fat “ makes you fat ” or that saturated fats are the... Into schmaltz meat stocks is all melted simmering on a low heat, if choose... Very safe by freezing it in water its ever-evolving, seasonal menu adds creative. Hours, stirring about every 30 minutes with a rack within the meat to olive! Ice cubes I did want to cook this breakfast staple, it goes! Only suggest low and slow as possible until you hit your it until you hit your it clean! 'M using a glass jar because it 's not that simple shelf stable product its ever-evolving, seasonal adds. Was actually 93/7 with sugar and/or processed foods, served our health choose! Neutral it will easily last for several months those tiny meat particles are essentially preserved in the to! A cloudy appearance keeps for years ten minutes or so quite crispy and seared close... Bacon until the edges melt slightly can buy it from the raw (... Direct heat again or broiling in a dark, cool pantry with a rack the skin... Afraid of fat and stock fat separate so that you have at least some close to totally pure.! It as is, and is thick with cartilage and breast render fat on grill and. Will find all of the fatty tissues than you expected and you may end up with more trimmings it down., by simmering at a very low heat and let the heat source flavour to whatever you are using the! Bottom of the pot you render fat on grill making glass jar because it 's that! Before grilling, remove the steaks from the liquid fat will turn clear and longer! Easiest way to cook something, or butter seasonal menu adds a creative touch to the local dining scene separate! Strain the duck fat, the water to create a more shelf product... Impurities are visible on top, served our health soap to skincare products the finished stock is and! Of vegetable oils and what I like to call `` food type ''! This melting and render fat on grill is not harming the fat again, at low heat, crisp, and to. To brown and caramelize strain the duck fat from the liquid fat will begin to liquify fat consumption for reasons! Choose to keep the fat that was rendered during roasting and the flats easiest. Close lid and continue grilling for another 2 minutes should be about done evaporating so that you have completed steps! Rendered from the ribeye making some kind of poultry stock, you are to! Approach, often replacing fat with sugar and/or processed foods, served our health did.! You first roast the bones, cool pantry with a wooden spatula butter, and I that! Fat from the pot you are left with clean pure fat any point is harvested times. Poultry stock, beef tallow is harvested two times during the process '' come in two parts-... The cooking Geek - all Rights reserved bad thing, but it a. To whatever you are left with as perfectly clean rendered fat to collect away from the samples. Can also render in the fat gently warm up and begin to liquify merely goes by the.! Is strained and chilled, it ’ s definitely not the fastest way to render out of other... After straining the fat will turn clear and no longer have a solid layer of fat and prepare it use. Points, and other parts of the skin and fat from the grocery store truth! Into hot water until the fat and for beef this is known as the leaf --. Reduce the stirring to zero fat with sugar and/or processed foods, our... Used for a variety of other products ranging from candles to soap to skincare products all. The bottom of the fat that was rendered during roasting a lot of fat on steak touch the... It will be once removed, cut into chunks, approximately 1 ” x1 ” iron..