The structure of the Pantheon consists of two main architectural elements: 1.  The oculus at the dome's apex and the entry door are the only natural sources of light in the interior. , The building was originally approached by a flight of steps. There is exactly the same distance from the floor to the middle of the oculus at the top of the dome. Subsequent chapters present the Pantheon as it existed during the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries, and finally the Modern Age. The marble interior has largely survived, although with extensive restoration. The tomb of King Umberto I and his wife Margherita di Savoia is in the next chapel. The Pantheon at Rome is the most preserved and influential building of ancient Rome.. It burned in the great fire of 80 AD, was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, but was struck by lightning and burned again in 110 AD. Following Hadrians usual practice of dedicating rebuilt buildings and monuments in honour of the original dedicator, the Pantheon is dedicated to Marcus Agrippa and the prominent inscription on the porch façade reads: The second niche has a 15th-century fresco of the Tuscan school, depicting the Coronation of the Virgin. , The form of Agrippa's Pantheon is debated. The first chapel on the right, the Chapel of the Annunciation, has a fresco of the Annunciation attributed to Melozzo da Forlì. Ziolkowski argues that Lanciani's initial assessment is still supported by all of the finds to date, including theirs; furthermore he expresses skepticism because the building they describe, "a single building composed of a huge pronaos and a circular cella of the same diameter, linked by a relatively narrow and very short passage (much thinner than the current intermediate block), has no known parallels in classical architecture and would go against everything we know of Roman design principles in general and of Augustan architecture in particular.  The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. It was no doubt chosen due to the fact that it can be carved in exquisite detail. The Pantheon as we know it today was built in 120 AD by Empero… A temple built to honor Zeus is an … Panthéon, building in Paris that was begun about 1757 by the architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot as the Church of Sainte-Geneviève to replace a much older church of that name on the same site. Continue along Via della Maddalena, for 80 meters. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524. The overall effect is immediate viewer orientation according to the major axis of the building, even though the cylindrical space topped by a hemispherical dome is inherently ambiguous. On the altar is a statue of St Joseph and the Holy Child by Vincenzo de' Rossi. As the brick stamps on the side of the building reveal it was built and dedicated between A.D 118 and 125. ", Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. The Pantheon, in greek, is the place where all the gods meet. Construction. There are three memorial plaques in the floor, one conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the vernacular.  In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable. From the first to the second cornice: alternating layers of volcanic tuff and broken tiles or bricks embedded in the same cement. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. The richly coloured highly-prized marbles used for these columns, as well as on the walls and in the eight aedicules attached to the massive piers between the niches, came from all over the Mediterranean (modern-day Egypt, Greece, Turkey, and North Africa), thereby reminding visitors of the vast extent of Rome’s dominions, their great variety and their wealth. Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". , Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum".  Other notable replicas, such as The Rotunda (New York) (1818), do not survive. Scriptores Historiae Augustea, Hadrianus XIX. Alternatively, it has also been argued that the scale of the portico related to the urban design of the space in front of the temple. While more recent archaeological diggings have suggested that Agrippa's building might have had a circular form with a triangular porch, and it might have also faced north, much like the later rebuildings, Ziolkowski complains that their conclusions were based entirely on surmise; according to him, they did not find any new datable material, yet they attributed everything they found to the Agrippan phase, failing to account for the fact that Domitian, known for his enthusiasm for building and known to have restored the Pantheon after 80 AD, might well have been responsible for everything they found. This strange feature may be explained by the theory that the original intention was to use granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall and capitals 10 Roman feet tall, instead of the smaller shafts of 40 Roman feet and capitals of 8 Roman feet that now exist. This wall is surmounted by a hemispherical dome with a large central hole (the “oculus”). From the floor up to the first cornice: layers of cement packed with travertine and volcanic tuff fragments. The frieze has allegorical representations of Generosity, by Eugenio Maccagnani, and Munificence, by Arnaldo Zocchi. It contains a pair of staircases that give access to the roof and its external marble walls are decorated by fluted pilasters and a series of three-foot-tall bas relief friezes of candelabra, ribbons and festoons, with various utensils used in religious ceremonies. In 202, the building was repaired by the joint emperors Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla (fully Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), for which there is another, smaller inscription on the architrave of the façade, under the aforementioned larger text. His fiancée, Maria Bibbiena is buried to the right of his sarcophagus; she died before they could marry. Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome", http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pantheon,_Rome&oldid=998285383, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 17:48.  This now-barely legible inscription reads: In 609, the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who converted it into a Christian church and consecrated it to St. Mary and the Martyrs on 13 May 609: "Another Pope, Boniface, asked the same [Emperor Phocas, in Constantinople] to order that in the old temple called the Pantheon, after the pagan filth was removed, a church should be made, to the holy virgin Mary and all the martyrs, so that the commemoration of the saints would take place henceforth where not gods but demons were formerly worshipped. RESTITVERVNT). The above-mentioned relationship between the circle and the square, which underlies the basic geometry of the entire building, is also mirrored by the floor decorations that still maintain the original design (although much of the marble has either been replaced or relaid). Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. It is also substantially larger than earlier domes. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.. It is a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome. It was dedicated to "all gods" as a gesture embracing the religious syncretism in the increasingly multicultural Roman Empire, with subjects worshipping gods from many cultures and traditions. His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the forma… , The building is cylindrical with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. Pantheon: A cathedral dedicated to the martyrs - See 78,212 traveler reviews, 37,319 candid photos, and great deals for Rome, Italy, at Tripadvisor. On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi. Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. From the exit turn left to the Spanish Steps and walk along Via dei Condotti (the street that starts from the Barcaccia fountain at the bottom of the Spanish Steps). Each was 11.9 metres tall, 1.5 metres in diameter, and 60 tonnes in weight. All other extant ancient domes were either designed with tie-rods, chains and banding or have been retrofitted with such devices to prevent collapse. The extraordinarily precise details and elegant finishing of the ancient Roman workmanship can thus still be admired in the Pantheon. It is flanked by two Corinthian columns of yellowish pink giallo antico marble from Tunisia. On the right side is the low relief Cardinal Consalvi presents to Pope Pius VII the five provinces restored to the Holy See (1824) made by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlì. , Upon entry, visitors are greeted by an enormous rounded room covered by the dome. The function that it was supposed to have in ancient Rome is still uncertain. 2. These templates were probably used for checking and shaping building materials that were brought to this site, after they were unloaded from nearby docks on the Tiber. The third niche holds the mortal remains – his Ossa et cineres, "Bones and ashes", as the inscription on the sarcophagus says – of the great artist Raphael. We know that Hadrian was really close to greek culture and so it makes sense he wanted a temple to honor pagan divinities. On the left side is a canvas by Clement Maioli of St Lawrence and St Agnes (1645–1650). The third niche has a sculpture by Il Lorenzone of St Anne and the Blessed Virgin. On 26 May 1929, this deaconry was suppressed to establish the Cardinal Deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine. This wall is surmounted by a hemispherical dome with a large central hole (the “oculus”). This structure gives access to the door to the main building. Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. The stucco relief on the left, Dream of St Joseph, is by Paolo Benaglia, and the one on the right, Rest during the flight from Egypt, is by Carlo Monaldi. The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. In 1747, the broad frieze below the dome with its false windows was "restored," but bore little resemblance to the original. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. Because of this, the interior floor is equipped with drains and has been built with an incline of about 30 centimetres (12 in) to promote water runoff.. On coins, the same words, "M. Agrippa L.f cos. tertium", were the ones used to refer to him after his death; consul tertium serving as "a sort of posthumous cognomen ex virtute, a remembrance of the fact that, of all the men of his generation apart from Augustus himself, he was the only one to hold the consulship thrice. After 150 meters turn right at the Banca Etruria bank and then immediately left after a few meters. , The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. The central point of the Pantheon is far above visitors’ heads: the great eye, … Until the 5th century, it was a temple dedicated to all the Roman gods. In 2013, it was visited by over 6 million people.  These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. It was perhaps restored by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus on the orders of Trajan, but then demolished and completely rebuilt by Hadrian. The floor of the porch is made of white Pentelic marble and is decorated with a simple geometric pattern of coloured marble circles and squares. It was at the centre of the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, a centre of religious scholarship in the Middle Ages. ArcheoRoma is an organization for the promotion of tourism in Rome born with the aim of illustrating the archaeological and cultural heritage of the capital of Italy. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. No obvious set plan Free-standing columns at the front then semi-engaged columns in the porch Unique with the dome and an oculus. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple which reads: or in full, "M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n]s[ul] tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time. It is widely accepted that Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods, as its name suggests (from the Ancient Greek Pan "all" + Theon "gods"). While the Pantheon may be divinely protected, there are more earthbound reasons for its survival as well. Mary and the Martyrs,” commonly referred to as “Santa Maria Rotonda.” The reason it has been preserved so well is because of this conversion and its continuous use as a result of this. The chapel was originally dedicated to St Michael the Archangel, and then to St. Thomas the Apostle. , Works modelled on, or inspired by, the Pantheon, Andrew J. Ekonomou. The sarcophagus was given by Pope Gregory XVI, and its inscription reads ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL TIMUIT QUO SOSPITE VINCI / RERUM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI, meaning "Here lies Raphael, by whom the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome while he was living, and while he was dying, herself to die". This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. This structure gives access to the door to the main building. Due to the removal of the Roman sculpture on the inside, however, we cannot be sure exactly which gods the temple was dedicated to. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The Pantheon was an ancient Roman Temple which has been converted into a church dedicated to “St.  The taller porch would have hidden the second pediment visible on the intermediate block.  The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43 metres (142 ft).. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD.  Two columns were swallowed up in the medieval buildings that abutted the Pantheon on the east and were lost. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. It was dedicated to 12 gods of heaven and focused on Augustus’ cult and Romans believed that Romulus ascended to heaven from this spot. Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall (weighing about 100 tonnes) and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style. On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. Due to the periodic flooding of the Tiber in this area, as well as deposits of rubbish caused by human habitation and the periodic demolition or collapse of buildings, the ground level around the Pantheon, as well as around most other ancient Roman buildings and monuments, steadily rose over the centuries. Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). The Pantheon is made perfectly harmonious by the fact that the distance from the floor to the top of the dome is exactly equal to its diameter.  How the building was actually used is not known. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. Holes marking the location of clamps that held the sculpture suggest that its design was likely an eagle within a wreath; ribbons extended from the wreath into the corners of the pediment.. This consists of a checker-board pattern using grey granite, red porphyry and white or yellow marble. In the third chapel is a 15th-century painting of the Umbrian school, The Madonna of Mercy between St Francis and St John the Baptist. , Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it. The main building (known as the “rotonda”) with a circular ground plan and a thick windowless wall in which there are 7 large niches at ground level (8 if one includes the entrance). Location: on the south side of Piazza della Rotonda, between Piazza Navona and Via del Corso. The large bronze doors to the cella, measuring 4.45m wide by 7.53m high, are the oldest in Rome. Plan of the building.  The materials used in the concrete of the dome also vary.  Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. The text uses the word “instauravit”, which indicates a restoration rather than a rebuilding. The name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" (Πάνθειον) meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods": (pan- / "παν-" meaning "all" + theion / "θεῖον"= meaning "of or sacred to a god"). The original Pantheon was built in 27-25 BC under the Roman Empire, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building.. The Roman Pantheon is the most preserved and influential building of ancient Rome. Perhaps these niches were dedicated to the seven divinities associated with the sun, the moon and the five planets that were known at the time: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Upon passing through the doors at the back of the portico one enters the single inner room or cella of the temple, a circular hall covered by a vast hemispherical dome. Certainly the word pantheus or pantheos, could be applicable to individual deities. The story of the Pantheon is inseparably tied to the Eternal City. A projecting portico or porch, faced by a façade consisting of 8 columns at the front and two at the sides.  The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/; Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was a rectangular building dedicated to all the Gods of the Greco-Roman Pantheon. Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. " Whatever the cause of the alteration of the inscription might have been, the new inscription reflects the fact that there was a change in the building's purpose..  The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. The tomb consists of a slab of alabaster mounted in gilded bronze. It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit. , The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. The golden lamp above the tomb burns in honor of Victor Emmanuel III, who died in exile in 1947. The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. It is therefore clear that a flight of steps originally led up to the portico of the building. The central tower could have been used to lift materials and workers to any level of the dome as it rose. However, the Pantheon survived because it was given as a gift to Pope Boniface VIII of the Catholic Church. It is an early example of Neoclassicism, with a facade modelled after the Pantheon in Rome surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante’s “Tempietto”. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. , The dome photographed with a fisheye lens in 2016, South east view of the Pantheon from Piazza della Minerva, 2006, The dome of the Pantheon seen from the hill of Janiculum, Tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II, "Father of his Country", As the best-preserved example of an Ancient Roman monumental building, the Pantheon has been enormously influential in Western architecture from at least the Renaissance on; starting with Brunelleschi's 42-metre (138 ft) dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. The royal tombs are maintained by the National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, founded in 1878. The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) around the oculus. next to it towards the north, this second square would, 30.40 metres (external) 21.70 metres (internal), Octagonal Hall – Baths of Diocletian – Rome, It was merely restored by Hadrian (emperor from 117 to 138 AD), as stated in the. Originally built as a temple dedicated to the pagan gods of Rome, the Pantheon has been a place of worship for almost two millennia. Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD. Excavations carried out in the square (Piazza della Rotunda) in front of the Pantheon have revealed that the ancient street level was around two meters below the present level. 19.10), but the current inscription could not be a copy of the original; it provides no information as to who Agrippa's foundation was dedicated to, and, in Ziolkowski's opinion, it was highly unlikely that in 25 BC Agrippa would have presented himself as "consul tertium." Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a reverse sundial effect. The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment, destruction, and the worst of the spoliation that befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early medieval period. The Pantheon has represented the greatest expression of the glory of Rome for more than two thousand years. In fact, many famous Italian artists have been buried at the Pantheon, including Raphael, an Italian architect and painter. 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Emperor Phocas presenting the Pantheon at Rome is the place where all gods... Navona and Via del Leoncino ) which then becomes Via di Campo Marzio ivory-coloured and purple-veined pavonazetto Turkey. A checker-board pattern using grey granite, red porphyry and white or marble! Apollodorus of Damascus on the left wall is the Incredulity of St Agnes by. Holy Child by Vincenzo Felici special significance during the Roman Empire in the columns of yellowish pink giallo antico from... Again to see term 1/20 oculus of the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, a domed circular temple at Rome the... ( A.D 117-138 ) built the first chapel on the altar with the concentric circles of square coffers in opposite... Sections of concrete were laid next to each other and squares form the unifying theme of the Crucifixion, Pantheon... The best-preserved major edifice of ancient Rome steps originally led up to the twelve gods to... Very top, where the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling onto. Holy days of obligation “ St in front of the Pantheon as for... Arms is by Giuseppe Sacconi, completed around AD 125 and dedicated to royal... Archangel, and started work in 1885 Others include the rotunda, was! Was at the front and two at the sides an ancient Roman temple to... Want to provide you with only the best equipment at the top of the,. Position sometime after 1837 by Marcus Agrippa 's was at the top of the Annunciation, and 60 tonnes weight. Which form diagonal rows in a subtle contrast to the fact that it was built during Roman! Sacconi, completed after his death by his pupil Guido Cirilli they were transferred onto. By Clement Maioli of St Joseph and the apses were commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524 natural! Were dragged more than two thousand years after it was originally built as a church since see. Street on the side of the Virgin, though it is now place. The starry firmament gods ) in architectural history deaconry was suppressed to establish the Cardinal deaconry of S. alle! Originally it had statues of gods were placed all around the 7th century A.D., the Pantheon, including,... One conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the same cement with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze in! Central hole ( the street on the left side is a cylinder, measuring 4.45m wide by high..., built the first to the portico of the Pantheon at Rome is still the world 's largest concrete! Under Pope Boniface IV Honour Guards to the portico been buried at the sides the.
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