":152 The following evening, Nixon decided that "We would go for broke" and gave his authorization for the incursion. Through Cambodia had a weak army, Lon Nol had given Hanoi 48 hours to pull its forces out of Cambodia and began the hasty training of 60,000 volunteers to fight the PAVN/VC. CPT Joseph P. Frankoski (CO-66) 1-LT Harold C. Lynch (CO-67) SSG Levin U. Ashby, SP4 Robert Tompkins, PFC Alex P. Rohr, PFC James Barron. On 19 June Thiệu ordered III Corps to relieve Kampong Cham once again and on 21 June three task forces moved towards Chup along Route 7 from Krek. The operation ended on 14 May. Bear Cat was home to the 9th Infantry Division. 2-LT Richard Sanders (CO-67) :560 Feeling that events were not working in his favor, Nixon was in a favor of some bold, audacious action that might turn his fortunes around. :127–133, While Sihanouk was abroad in France for a rest cure in January 1970, government-sponsored anti-Vietnamese demonstrations were held throughout Cambodia. While they received very limited material help from the North Vietnamese at the time (the Hanoi government had no incentive to overthrow Sihanouk, since it was satisfied with his continued "neutrality"), they were able to shelter their forces in areas controlled by PAVN/VC troops. The participation of U.S. ground and air forces had precluded any such claim. Knock them all out so they can't be used against us again Ever". After three days of operations, ARVN claimed 1,010 PAVN troops had been killed and 204 prisoners taken for the loss of 66 ARVN dead. :152 The joint U.S./ARVN campaign would begin on 1 May with the stated goals of: reducing allied casualties in South Vietnam; assuring the continued withdrawal of U.S. forces; and enhancing the U.S./Saigon government position at the peace negotiations in Paris. By 3 May, MACV reported only eight Americans killed and 32 wounded, low casualties for such a large operation. Haldeman, that he and the rest of his staff should see Patton and be more like the subject of the film. 1st Battalion/7th Cavalry,3rd Brigade 1st Cavalry Division was in the Fishhook very early May through 30 June when they crossed the river back into Vietnam.  The student strike spread nationwide, involving more than four million students and 450 universities, colleges and high schools in mostly peaceful protests and walkouts. The Cambodian leadership however welcomed the intervention against PAVN bases and the resulting weakening of PAVN military capabilities. :606 Lon Nol encouraged pogroms against the Vietnamese minority and the Cambodian police took the lead in organizing the pogroms. :182, Reaction in the U.S. Congress to the incursion was also swift. There were truck repair facilities, hospitals, a lumber yard, 18 mess halls, a pig farm and even a swimming pool. :319–320, On 22 April Nixon authorized the planning of a South Vietnamese incursion into the Parrot's Beak (named for its perceived shape on a map), believing that "Giving the South Vietnamese an operation of their own would be a major boost to their morale as well as provide a practical demonstration of the success of Vietnamization. During these operations South Vietnamese and American naval forces evacuated about 35,000 Vietnamese from Cambodia. :201 Historian Shelby Stanton has noted that "there was a noted lack of aggressiveness" in the combat assault and that the division seemed to be "suffering from almost total combat paralysis. On 14 May the task forces killed 74 PAVN/VC and captured 76. He was also adamant that some action be taken to support "The only government in Cambodia in the last twenty-five years that had the guts to take a pro–Western stand. 9th Infantry Division - Command and Staff Commanding General 27 Nov 43 Maj. Gen. Manton S. Eddy Commanding General 19 Aug 44 Maj. Gen. Louis A Craig Commanding General 17 May 45 Brig. , During the incursion itself, U.S. and ARVN ground units were supported by 9,878 aerial sorties (6,012 USAF/2,966 RVNAF), an average of 210 per day. :608 Lon Nol was not informed in advance that American and South Vietnamese forces were about to enter his nation. On 15 May city and state police killed two and wounded twelve at Jackson State College in Jackson, Mississippi. To the Nixon administration, Abrams' desire to attack the Communist sanctuaries … :567 Upon seeing a map, Nixon noticed there other PAVN/VC sanctuaries besides the "Parrot's Beak" and the "Fishhook. It took us 5 hours to go 150 miles, traffic was horrendous (and always is).  Sabo was awarded the Medal of Honor on 16 May 2012 by President Barack Obama. :152, On 30 April ARVN forces launched Operation Toan Thang 42 (Total Victory), also labeled Operation Rock Crusher. Sihanouk was in Moscow, having a discussion with the Soviet Premier Alexi Kosygin, who had to inform him mid-way in the conversation that he had just been deposed. :563, During a televised address on 20 April, Nixon announced the withdrawal of 150,200 U.S. troops from South Vietnam during the year as part of the Vietnamization program. Due to lack of verifiable sources in North Vietnam, this figure is, at best, an estimate. Four tank-infantry task forces attacked into the Parrot's Beak from the south. Keywords : brigade operation Plain of Reeds Cambodia Viet Cong. Two task forces moved along Routes 7 from Krek and 15 from Prey Veng to converge on the Chup plantation. :57–58, Phase III began on 7 May with one ARVN task force engaging the PAVN 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Prasot killing 182 and capturing 8, while another task force found a 200-bed hospital. On 1 May a tape of Nixon's announcement of the incursion was played for Abrams, who according to Lewis Sorley "must have cringed" when he heard the President state that the capture of the headquarters was one of the major objectives of the operation. :115 On 14 April 1970, Lon Nol appealed for help, saying that Cambodia was on the verge of losing its independence. :148 Defense Department records indicated that out of more than 8,000 combat sorties flown in Cambodia between July 1970 and February 1971, approximately 40 percent were flown outside the authorized boundary. :174 It was already too late for thousands of ethnic Vietnamese murdered by Cambodian persecution, but there were tens of thousands of Vietnamese still within the country who could be evacuated to safety. This was followed by an hour of massed artillery fire and another hour of strikes by tactical fighter-bombers. :607 The task of providing a legal justification was assigned to William Rehnquist, the assistant attorney general, who wrote a legal brief saying in times of war the president had the right to deploy troops "in conflict with foreign powers at their own initiative". Senators Frank F. Church (Democratic Party, Idaho) and John S. Cooper (Republican Party, Kentucky), proposed an amendment to the Foreign Military Sales Act of 1971 that would have cut off funding not only for U.S. ground operations and advisors in Cambodia, but would also have ended U.S. air support for Cambodian forces. Eight U.S. soldiers were killed and 28 wounded, among those killed was Specialist Leslie Sabo, Jr. (posthumously promoted to Sergeant), who was recommended for the Medal of Honor, but the paperwork went missing until 1999. Cambodian neutrality and military weakness made its territory a safe zone where PAVN/VC forces could establish bases for operations over the border. The North Vietnamese, forewarned by previous ARVN incursions, however, conducted only delaying actions in order to allow the bulk of their forces to escape to the west. Don't let them pick up the pieces. The ARVN claimed 187 PAVN/VC killed and over 1,000 weapons captured for a cost of 24 killed. A 17 March directive from the headquarters of the B-3 Front, captured during the incursion, ordered PAVN/VC forces to "break away and avoid shooting back...Our purpose is to conserve forces as much as we can". This rankled U.S. commanders, who regarded the restriction as a potentially fatal mistake. After three days of operations, 1,010 PAVN troops had been killed and 204 prisoners taken for the loss of 66 ARVN dead and 330 wounded. PAVN troops opened fire with small arms and rockets only to be blasted by tank fire and tactical airstrikes. The joint nature of the operation added another level of complexity to the already overstretched communications network. The ARVN force returned to South Vietnam on 23 April. :178–179, Simultaneously, public opinion polls during the second week of May showed that 50 percent of the American public approved of Nixon's actions. A series of South Vietnamese–Khmer Republic operations captured several towns, but the PAVN/VC military and political leadership narrowly escaped the cordon. :606 Sihanouk left Moscow for Beijing, where he was greeted warmly by Zhou Enlai, who assured him that China still recognized him as the legitimate leader of Cambodia, and would back his efforts at restoration. :129 Both were castigated by Henry Kissinger for their "bureaucratic foot-dragging. The 3rd of the 34th Artillery was a towed 105mm howitzer battalion assigned to the 9th Infantry Division. On 7 May the 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment engaged a PAVN force killing 167 and capturing 28 weapons. Known as Task Force Shoemaker (after General Robert M. Shoemaker, the Assistant Division Commander of the 1st Cavalry Division), the force attacked the PAVN/VC stronghold with 10,000 U.S. and 5,000 South Vietnamese troops. Earlier, on 8 May 100,000 protesters had gathered in Washington and another 150,000 in San Francisco on only ten days notice. A 4,000-man ARVN armored task force linked up with FANK troops and then retook the town. On 7 May the Cavalry located a massive supply cache, nicknamed "Rock Island East" after the U.S. Army's Rock Island Arsenal in Illinois, the area contained more than 6.5 million rounds of anti-aircraft ammunition, 500,000 rifle rounds, thousands of rockets, several General Motors trucks, and large quantities of communications equipment. Planning for any eventuality the North Vietnamese started planning emergency evacuation routes in the event of a coordinated assault by Cambodians from the west and South Vietnamese from the east. :90, National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger wrote in his memoirs that "historians rarely do justice to the psychological stress on a policy-maker", noting that by early 1970 President Nixon was feeling very much besieged and inclined to lash out against a world he was believed was plotting his downfall. :608, The only conventional battle fought by American troops occurred on 1 May at Snuol, the terminus of the Sihanouk Trail at the junction of Routes 7, 13 and 131. :182 Fifty-eight percent blamed the students for what had occurred at Kent State. PAVN forces had begun moving through Cambodian territory as early as 1963. :99–100, On 9 May ARVN IV Corps launched Operation Cuu Long, in which ARVN ground forces, including mechanized and armored units, drove west and northwest up the eastern side of the Mekong River from 9 May to 1 July. 20 December 1966: The 2/60th Infantry, 3/60th Infantry and 5/60th Infantry (M) of the 9th Infantry Division arrive in South Vietnam. Total PAVN losses, according to the ARVN, were 415 killed or captured and over 100 weapons captured. Resupply was limited due to the thick jungle terrain in the area, so the 2nd Battalion (Mech. Just like the Germans. :58–60, Not all of the members of the administration agreed that an invasion of Cambodia was either militarily or politically expedient. Into the Delta is a look at our trip to Can Tho, the largest city in the Delta and two hours from Cambodia. When a massed American attack was met by heavy resistance, the Americans backed off, called in air support and blasted the town for two days, reducing it to rubble. Most demonstrations, both pro- and anti-war, were peaceful. During the action, Brigadier general Donn A. Starry, commander of the 11th ACR, was wounded by grenade fragments and evacuated. :144 Cambodian soldiers and civilians then unleashed a reign of terror, murdering thousands of Vietnamese civilians. The ARVN 7th Airborne Battalion engaged PAVN forces outside of Krek killing 26 and capturing 16. :51–55 The offensive was under the command of Lieutenant General Đỗ Cao Trí, the commander of III Corps, who had a reputation as one of the most aggressive and competent ARVN generals. Enemy aircraft destroyed 4,000 trucks during the 1970–1971 dry season... Our supply effort, conducted during a single season of the year and using a single supply route, was unable to keep up with our requirements and our night supply operations encountered difficulties.:262–263. elements in Cambodia". Lon Nol had requested that the ARVN help in the retaking of Kampong Speu, a town along Route 4 southwest of Phnom Penh and 90 miles (140 km) inside Cambodia. 82d Airborne Division. On 1 May an even larger operation, known by the ARVN as Operation Toan Thang 43 and by MACV as Operation Rockcrusher, got underway as 36 B-52s dropped 774 tons of bombs along the southern edge of the Fishhook. :72–73 This was made even more problematic by the confusion generated by the lack of adequate communications systems between the rapidly advancing units. Publication date 1970-05-08 Usage Public Domain Mark 1.0 Topics Vietnam War, Vietnam War, 1961-1975, United States. On 21 May a task force killed 9 PAVN and captured 26 from the PAVN 27th Regiment, 9th Division. A change in the Cambodian government allowed an opportunity to destroy the bases in 1970, when Prince Norodom Sihanouk was deposed and replaced by pro–U.S. :26–7, In mid-April 1970 Abrams and Chief of the South Vietnamese Joint General Staff (JGS) General Cao Văn Viên discussed the possibility of attacking the Cambodian base areas. FINAL MISSION OF PFC JOHN D. LONSDALE Operation Toan Thang 44 was a combined 1st and 2nd Brigades, 25th Infantry Division, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, and ARVN Airborne Division operation against North Vietnamese Army (NVA) Base Areas 353, 354, and 707 in Cambodia conducted between May 6-14, 1970. Patio was terminated on 18 May after 156 sorties had been flown. :607 Nixon had become obsessed with the film Patton, a biographical portrayal of controversial General George S. Patton, Jr., which he kept watching over and over again, seeing how the film presented Patton as a solitary and misunderstood genius whom the world did not appreciate a parallel to himself. Michael Richey | Vietnam | 3rd Battalion, 47th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division | 1:23 . :148, The real struggle for the U.S. and ARVN forces in Cambodia was the effort at keeping their units supplied. :606 Even before the supply conduit through Sihanoukville was shut down, PAVN had begun expanding its logistical system from southeastern Laos (the Ho Chi Minh trail) into northeastern Cambodia.  In 1966, Prince Norodom Sihanouk, ruler of Cambodia, convinced of eventual communist victory in Southeast Asia and fearful for the future of his rule, had concluded an agreement with the People's Republic of China which allowed the establishment of permanent communist bases on Cambodian soil and the use of the Cambodian port of Sihanoukville for resupply. Such violence, however, was an aberration. :147, Nixon went to Honolulu to offer his congratulations to the Apollo 13 astronauts who had survived a malfunction on their spacecraft and while there, met the Commander in Chief, Pacific Command, Admiral John S. McCain Jr., who was the sort of aggressive, pugnacious military man he admired the most. :564 Once Laird learned that Nixon was determined "to do something", he suggest only invading the "Parrot's Beak" area with ARVN forces. Fort Lewis, Washington. On 12 May the 5th Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, was attacked overnight by a PAVN force losing one killed while claiming 50 PAVN killed. With the US shifting toward a policy of Vietnamization and withdrawal, it sought to shore up the South Vietnamese government by eliminating the cross-border threat. As a response to the loss of their Cambodian supply route, PAVN forces seized the Laotian towns of Attopeu and Saravane during the year, pushing what had been a 60-mile (97 km) corridor to a width of 90 miles (140 km) and opening the entire length of the Kong River system into Cambodia. In February 1970, the "secret war" in Laos was revealed, much to his displeasure. :56–57 Continued unrest spurred Prime Minister/Defense Minister Lon Nol to close the port of Sihanoukville to communist supplies and to issue an ultimatum on 12 March to the North Vietnamese to withdraw their forces from Cambodia within 72 hours. Helicopters carrying the 3rd Battalion, 8th Infantry were met again by intense anti-aircraft fire and were diverted to an alternative landing zone, however only 60 men were landed before intense PAVN fire (which shot down one helicopter and damaged two others) shut down the landing zone, leaving them stranded and surrounded overnight. :568, As foreseen by Laird, fallout from the incursion was quick in coming on the campuses of America's universities, as protests erupted against what was perceived as an expansion of the conflict into yet another country. Four tank-infantry task forces attacked into the Parrot's Beak from the south. :180, Moving across the border in Cambodia on 30 March, elements of the PRG and VC were surrounded in their bunkers by ARVN forces flown in by helicopter. One task force met heavy resistance and killed 182 PAVN and captured 30 for the loss of seven killed. 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