who fought in the 30 years war

The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. There was little serious fighting after France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the Pyrenees. With the exception of the 1639 to 1642 Piedmontese Civil War, this secured the French position in Northern Italy for the next twenty years. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. [145], Bautzen is besieged by Saxon troops, 1620 by Matthäus Merian, Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder,April 1631, Death of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden at the Battle of Lützen,6 November 1632, The capture of Rheinfelden by the troops of the Duke of Feria,1633, 1618–1648 multi-state war in Central Europe, Phase II; France joins the war 1635 to 1648, States that fought against the Emperor at some point between 1618 to 1635, Since officers were paid per soldier, numbers, All armies were multinational; an estimated 60,000 Scottish, English or Irish individuals fought on one side or the other during the period; based on an analysis of a mass grave discovered in 2011, fewer than 50% of "Swedish" forces at, Maximum in Germany, excludes 24,000 home defence, Parrott suggests many of these should be included in the figures for Imperial troops above, and that estimates of cavalry in particular were massively overstated. This view is widely accepted by modern historians, although debate continues over the extent to which it was a European rather than German conflict, and the accuracy of the title 'Thirty Years'. The high mortality rate compared to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in Britain may partly be due to the reliance of all sides on foreign mercenaries, often unpaid and required to live off the land. [40], By abandoning Frederick, the German princes hoped to restrict the dispute to Bohemia, but Maximilian's dynastic ambitions made this impossible. [97], Turenne, French commander in the Rhineland, was ordered to attack the Spanish Netherlands but the plan fell apart when his mostly German troops mutinied. 17th century Europe was a highly structured and socially conservative society, and their lack of enthusiasm was due to the implications of removing a legally elected ruler, regardless of religion. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. Meanwhile the conflict widened, fueled by political ambitions of the various powers. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. Christian IV of Denmark was also Duke of Holstein, and it was in this capacity he joined the war in 1625. [108], This was accompanied by a struggle for control in the East Indies and Africa, increasing Portuguese resentment against the Spanish, who were perceived as prioritising their own colonies. [47], With Saxony dominating the Upper Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lower, both kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate. Fighting did not end immediately, since demobilising over 200,000 soldiers was a complex business, and the last Swedish garrison did not leave Germany until 1654. It devastated most of Europe especially Germany and ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. In 1556, Habsburg Spain became a separate entity, while retaining Imperial states such as the Duchy of Milan, and interests in Bohemia and Hungary; the two often co-operated, but their objectives did not always align. Also, can you list some basic cause and effects of the war? "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620". [143], By laying the foundations of the modern nation state, Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers. This thesis explores the role of England and the English during the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), and provides the first major study of the between 50,000 and 60,000 Englishmen who fought for the ‘Protestant cause’ within the armies of countries such as … He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. Omissions? [124] Although regular outbreaks of disease were common for decades prior to 1618, the conflict greatly accelerated their spread. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf. Four of the electors were Catholic, three Protestant; if this could be changed, it might result in a Protestant Emperor. As the Twelve Years’ Truce approached its end, it became obvious that the Spanish empire needed a new strategy. [92], Ferdinand restarted peace talks in November, but his position worsened when Gallas' army disintegrated; the remnants retreated into Bohemia, where they were scattered by Torstenson at Jankau in March 1645. [34], Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. The Habsburg heir Archduke Ferdinand first required the return of all property taken from the Catholic church since 1552, rather than leaving the courts to decide case by case as previously. [55] By the end of 1627, Wallenstein occupied Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Jutland, and began making plans to construct a fleet capable of challenging Danish control of the Baltic. This resulted in the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, making peace with France and Sweden respectively. The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. By 1623, Spanish-Imperial forces had defeated Frederick, who was stripped of his possessions and exiled. It is considered to be one of the most devastating wars in Europe. [88], By now, the devastation inflicted by 25 years of warfare meant all armies spent more time foraging than fighting. [129], Although some towns may have over-stated their losses to avoid taxes, individual records confirm serious declines; from 1620 to 1650, the population of Munich fell from 22,000 to 17,000, that of Augsburg from 48,000 to 21,000. Hoping to create a wider coalition against Ferdinand, the Dutch invited France, Sweden, Savoy, and the Republic of Venice to join, but it was overtaken by events. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. Each member was represented in the Imperial Diet; prior to 1663, this assembled on an irregular basis, and was primarily a forum for discussion, rather than legislation. [145], Arguably, France gained more from the Thirty Years' War than any other power; by 1648, most of Richelieu's objectives had been achieved. Charles I of England allowed Christian to recruit up to 9,000 Scottish mercenaries, but they took time to arrive, and while able to slow Wallenstein's advance, were insufficient to stop him. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. The chief agents of the Counter-Reformation were similarly split, the Jesuits generally backing Austria, the Capuchins France. [64] The 1632 to 1634 Smolensk War is considered a separate but related part of the Thirty Years' War. The Eighty Years' War (Dutch: Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Spanish: Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained … These diaries can be viewed (in German) at: This page was last edited on 23 February 2021, at 06:56. By weakening the Habsburgs while increasing the status of France and Sweden, it led to a new balance of power on the continent. Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a … In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died. One may describe a feeling of sadness as being "blue" and cowardice as being "yellow," but did American revolutionaries refer to British soldiers as "redcoats?" [62] With French resources tied up in Italy, he helped negotiate the September 1629 Truce of Altmark between Sweden and Poland, freeing Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war. While flight saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. [58], With Austrian resources stretched by the outbreak of the War of the Mantuan Succession, Wallenstein persuaded Ferdinand to agree relatively lenient terms in the June 1629 Treaty of Lübeck. In fact, almost all of the powerful countries in Europe were involved in the war. [141] A scathing condemnation of the trials, Cautio Criminalis, was written by professor and poet Friedrich Spee, himself a Jesuit and former "witch confessor". Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted to maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. Fighting in Germany ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, whose main provisions included Spanish confirmation of Dutch independence and acceptance of "German liberties" by the Austrian Habsburgs. Over five months later, on 24 October, the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück were signed. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [139] In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. [89] The French also had to rebuild their army in Germany after it was shattered by an Imperial-Bavarian force led by Franz von Mercy at Tuttlingen in November. [78] Ferdinand was forced to divert Piccolomini's army from Thionville, effectively ending direct military cooperation with Spain. The armies of both sides plundered as they marched, leaving cities, towns, villages, and farms ravaged. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). [111], Externally, the treaties formally acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic and the Swiss Confederacy, effectively autonomous since 1499. [24], These tensions gradually undermined Augsburg, and paralysed institutions like the Imperial diet designed to resolve them peacefully. [95] Sweden received an indemnity of five million thalers, the Imperial territories of Swedish Pomerania, and Prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; this gave them a seat in the Imperial Diet. Test how "green" your knowledge of warfare is in this quiz. [130] The financial impact is less clear; while the war caused short-term economic dislocation, overall it accelerated existing changes in trading patterns. [27] Some historians who see the war as primarily a European conflict argue Jülich marks its beginning, with Spain and Austria backing the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. [147], While differences over religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe in which it can be said to be a primary driver; later conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards revolt in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. While the Thirty Years War ranks as one of the worst of these events, precise numbers are disputed; 19th century nationalists often increased them to illustrate the dangers of a divided Germany. Disputes within the Empire drew in outside powers, many of whom held Imperial territories, including the Dutch Prince of Orange, hereditary ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg. [49] In 1621, Hamburg accepted Danish 'supervision', while his son Frederick became joint-administrator of Lübeck, Bremen, and Verden; possession ensured Danish control of the Elbe and Weser rivers. [16] These figures can be misleading, since Franz calculated the absolute decline in pre and post-war populations, or 'total demographic loss'. The process, or 'Congress' model, was adopted for negotiations at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668, Nijmegen in 1678, and Ryswick in 1697; unlike the 19th century 'Congress' system, these were to end wars, rather than prevent them, so references to the 'balance of power' can be misleading.

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